Electric Vehicle Charging Station Infrastructure- Ushering in a new era of electric vehicle charging

  • Published | 09 November 2021

With the transport sector accounting for around 25% of the total greenhouse gas emission, electric vehicles (EVs) are seen as one of the vital components of sustainable mobility for the future. As an EV owner, people always have to worry about keeping their vehicle charged within a given range...


The Green Energy Consumers Alliance has advised electric vehicle owners to keep the vehicle charged in the general sweet range of 20% to 80% charge. This range not only keeps the vehicle battery running like a new battery but also preserves the range capabilities of your EV and extends the working life of the battery.

With the surge in the demand for electric vehicles, the EV manufacturers are looking to develop long-range EV batteries and are also investing in the development of the electric vehicle charging station infrastructure. Currently, the range of electric vehicles is one of the prime restraints in the growth of EVs around the world. This factor coupled with the lack of the charging station infrastructure for electric vehicles is preventing the market from entering the next stage.

Electric Vehicle Charging Station InfrastructureBefore diving into the topic, let us have a basic understanding of the electric vehicle charging station infrastructure.

Electric vehicle charging station infrastructure is a set of power electronics that regulates the supply of electric power from the grid to the battery of the electric vehicle with utmost safety. The current and voltage levels differ based on the type of EV charging and battery-specific requirements.

Electric Vehicle charger, Power Grid, Facility Meter, Energy Controller, Software platform, Network operating center, and other relevant components are part of the electric vehicle charging station infrastructure. Battery, Power Conversion System, and Software create the power storage system at any electric vehicle charging station and are a vital part of the EV charging station infrastructure. A little insight about them is given below.

Battery: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are the preferred choice for the power storage systems at the EV charging stations. These batteries consist of cells, packs, battery management system (BMS) to manage the efficient charging and discharging of the batteries at the station.

Power Conversion System: The inverter, its enclosure, and thermal management (HVAC) create a power conversion system at EV charging stations. Power conversion system can convert AC into DC and visa-versa. HVAC maintains Li-ions batteries at a specific temperature to maintain the integrity of the batteries and enhance their work-life and efficiency.

Software: Software is an integral part of any electric vehicle charging station infrastructure as it helps to charge station operators manage EV charging stations and their customers. The software also manages and administers charging stations and their networks. The software also maintains the data of the state of charge of the battery, the rate of charge of the battery, the kilowatt-hours (kWh) used in charging, price signals from a utility, demand response signals from a demand management system, and other pieces of information. The software also allows EV users to locate available charging stations and promote quick deployment and configuration of the EV charging station infrastructure.

Types of Electric Vehicle Charging

Based on the type of vehicle, specifics of the battery, and other factors, there are different modes of EV charging. An overview of the different EV charging methods used globally is given below.

Slow AC Charging: It is the most basic type of EV charging available today and is also known as ‘Trickle Charge.’ It is extensively used in India and refers to simply plugging an EV into a standard 3-pin wall outlet with a current rating of 5 amp or 15 amp. It is only recommended in urgent cases with utmost caution and consultation with electricity providers.

Moderate AC Charging: It requires the installation of a dedicated EV charger to a 15 amp single-phase circuit. It comes with and without managed charging capabilities and charging rates start at 2.5 kW and can reach up to 20 kW depending on the type of EVSE installed and the car model connected. The majority of the global OEM vehicles are limited at 7.7kW with only a few vehicles going up to 20kW and drawing 80 amp current. Charging rates between 3-7.7kW can deliver a range between 25-65 km per hour charging for cars and 60-150 km for two-wheelers.

DC Fast Charging: It is the fastest method of charging EVs that can charge 20 to 80% battery within 40 minutes. DC fast charging is significantly expensive to install and operate. Public EV stations generally use DC fast charging with an output of 50kW and more. Some ultra-fast DC charging stations provide more than 150kW. Heavy-duty and medium-duty vehicles and buses typically require some form of DC fast charging to achieve a reasonable recharge time for their larger batteries.


Power Level and Current Type for Different Type of Charging


Power level

Current Type

Compatible EV segments

Normal Charging Power

P ≤ 7kW


E-2Ws, e-3Ws, e-cars, other LCVs (up to 1 ton)

7kW < P ≤ 22kW


High Charging Power

22kW < P ≤ 50kW


E-cars, LCVs and MCVs (1-6 tons)

50kW < P < 200kW


Source – Niti Aayog, Government of India


There are different types of EV charging stations available based on their business use cases. Residential charging, public charging, and fleet charging are the major business use cases of electric vehicle charging station infrastructure. Residential charging stations use AC chargers with more than 95% conversion efficiency. Some public charging stations use AC Type 2 chargers and some use DC chargers for fast charging. Fleet charging stations use DC chargers for all types of EVs and charging requirements. Fleet charging stations generally use chargers to accommodate 0KW – 300 KW of EVs.


Share of Different Power Ratings in Public Charging Points for Electric Vehicles

Electric Vehicle Charging Station Infrastructure

Source – Niti Aayog, Government of India


Challenges in the Electric Vehicle Charging Station Infrastructure Development

The electric vehicle industry is facing several challenges in the development of electric vehicle charging station infrastructure. Some of the major challenges are:

  • Large Charging Time
  • Charger Compatibility and Efficiency of the Chargers
  • Renewable Energy and Climate Mitigation
  • Battery Technology Gap & Lithium Plating
  • Thermal Management Systems
  • Economic and Geographical Issues
  • Grid Capacity
  • Vehicle Cost
  • Charging station financing and ownership.
  • Pricing of Electric Vehicle Charging
  • Government Regulations

These challenges make the development of electric vehicle charging station infrastructure a very tough task. However, despite these challenges, some the countries like the United Kingdom have developed projects for the development of electric vehicle charging stations infrastructure.

Since 2019, PTV UK and SP Energy Networks are working together to forecast the development of e-mobility over the next 3 decades, the time frame over which the UK aims to achieve net-zero carbon emission. PTV’s UK team has set up a detailed traffic model to consider the uptake and evolution of EV over the next few years. The model considers local data on traffic, movement, land use, population, and electricity network.

Companies operating in the energy market are looking to move away from fossil fuels and are moving towards renewables and EVs. Companies like ChargePoint, Shell, BP, ABB, and Hyundai are the leading companies in EV charging stations. ChargePoint is the largest and most open EV charging station network with more than 20,000 charging locations. Oil & gas giant, Shell entered the EV charging business with the acquisition of the GreenLots business unit. The company has plans to develop an EV charging infrastructure with around 500,000 charging stations within the next four years.

Future of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Infrastructure

According to BlueWeave Consulting, the future of electric vehicle charging station infrastructure depends on the integration of renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and others, with the charging stations. Furthermore, vehicle to grid (V2G) and Bidirectional chargers can promote the integration of renewable energy sources with EV charging stations. Growing preference for virtual power plants (VPPs) is another step forward in the direction of renewable sources integration with EV charging stations. Moreover, technical advancements in battery efficiency to increase range, easy EV charging, and wireless EV charging can also promote the development of EV infrastructure in the coming years.

Electric Vehicle Charging Demand, By Vehicle Segment

Niti Aayog, the government of India, has estimated that the demand for electrical vehicle charging stations will go up in coming years. An overview of the electric vehicle charging demand for different vehicle segments is given below:


Vehicle Segment

Daily kms driven

Battery capacity in kWh

Driving range in km/full charge

Daily charging demand in kWh

Total daily charging demand in kWh - 2025

Total daily charging demand in kWh - 2030








E-3W (passenger / cargo)







E-car (personal)







E-car (commercial)







Source – Niti Aayog, Government of India


With governments promoting EV sales and also investing significantly in the development of EV infrastructure and traditional automakers like Ford, BMW, Volkswagen, Volvo, GM, and many others, moving away from fossil fuel-based cars to electric cars is expected to further promote the development of electric vehicle charging station infrastructure around the world in coming years.

According to BlueWeave ConsultingGlobal Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Station Market by Product Type (AC EV charging station, & DC EV charging station), by AC EV Charging Station (Level 1 & Level 2), by DC EV Charging Station (CHAdeMO, Combiner charging station & Others), by Installation Type (Residential, & Commercial), by Supplier Type ( Private charging Station & OE charging station) by Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa and Latin America); Size and Forecast, 2018-2025, is projected to grow with a CAGR of 25% over the forecast period. The growth of the market can be attributed to growing sales of electric vehicles, increasing investment from the government, automakers moving towards electric vehicles, and growing emphasis on reducing the carbon emission.